Ms. Delphine Ho

Justice Lee obtained a Bachelor of Engineering (Hons) degree from the University of Adelaide in 1976. He began his career in 1977 as a civil engineer at the Public Works Department (PWD) and was posted to its Changi Airport Development Division. From 1977 to 1981, he was in charge of various civil engineering works in the Changi Airport project, from earthworks to roads, aircraft pavements and drainage. He established the Airport Engineering Course at the Singapore Civil Aviation Training Centre and was a part-time instructor for the course. Arising from this, Justice Lee has a keen in interest in civil aviation and airport management issues. From 1981 to 1982, he was posted to the Airbases Redevelopment Team of the PWD where he took charge of civil engineering works in various military airbases in Singapore. He undertook part-time studies at the National University of Singapore to earn a Masters of Engineering (Construction Engineering) degree in 1982.

In 1983, Justice Lee obtained an MBA (Distinction) from INSEAD at Fontainebleau, France. Upon his return he was seconded to Indeco Engineers Pte Ltd, a government linked company. He was in charge of business development of the company which was in the area of airport project management and engineering services. Justice Lee obtained his registration with the Professional Engineers Board as a Professional Engineer (Civil Engineering) in 1983.

Justice Lee read law at the National University of Singapore, where he obtained an LL.B (Hons) in 1986, and at Cambridge University where he earned an LL.M (Hons) in 1987. From 1987 to 1997, he served as Deputy Public Prosecutor and State Counsel (later, Senior State Counsel) at the AGC and undertook stints at the Crime Division where he was involved in criminal prosecution, the Civil Division where he undertook civil litigation as well as provided legal advice to the government, and the International Affairs Division, dealing with international law issues. He was admitted an Advocate and Solicitor of the Supreme Court of Singapore in 1991.

Justice Lee was appointed a Judicial Commissioner of the Supreme Court in 1997 and served in that capacity until 2002. He was concurrently the President of the Industrial Arbitration Court from 1999 to 2002. He returned to the AGC as Solicitor-General in 2002. In January 2003, he was appointed Senior Counsel. In 2006, he was appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court of Singapore.

From 2006 to 2022, Justice Lee was a member of the Legal Services Commission (LSC). The LSC was in charge of promotion, hiring and disciplinary matters of officers in the Singapore Legal Service, which by 2022, numbered almost 800 lawyers.

He is also comfortable working in French.

Legal Counsel

As Senior State Counsel in the AGC, Justice Lee was one of its principal litigators representing the government of Singapore in civil litigation. Justice Lee has defended the government in High Court suits ranging from tortious claims, such as malicious prosecution and causing wrongful death, to construction disputes. He was also counsel for the government in a number of high value arbitrations involving building and construction claims, some of which were settled after mediation. In 1995, Justice Lee acted for the government in the first dispute brought before the World Trade Organization under its dispute settlement regime.

Information Technology In The Legal Sector

In 1988, Justice Lee joined the AGC computerisation committee, marking the start of more than three decades of involvement in the technology transformation of the legal sector in Singapore.

He was appointed a director of the Computer Information Systems Division in 1989, which was responsible for the digitalisation of files and research material as well as transforming the AGC from a paper-based to an IT-based organisation. He was involved in the conceptualisation, and then took charge of the development, of LawNet, which had its roots as a portal providing digital access to Singapore Statutes, electronic application for legal requisitions for property conveyancing, and data in the then Registry of Companies.

When the Singapore Academy of Law took over the management of LawNet in 1995, Justice Lee continued to steer its development - initially as project manager, and later as chair of LawNet Management Committee. LawNet very soon became the primary source of electronic legal research for the local legal sector, serving as a one-stop portal providing a comprehensive suite of information and transactional solutions for Singapore and the global legal community. Under his stewardship, the LawNet Management Committee (renamed Legal Technology Cluster Committee in 2015) drove the sector's IT transformation and published the Legal Technology Vision in 2017. This five-year roadmap aimed to promote the use of technology to enhance operations in Singapore's legal sector, launching various national initiatives that included the Future Law Innovation Programme in 2018. This programme brought together lawyers, technopreneurs, investors, academics, and regulators to transform the delivery of legal services.

Justice Lee also chaired the review committee on the Electronic Filing System (EFS), launched in 2000, which was Singapore's first-generation digital court system. He then led the committee in the Supreme Court to develop the next generation Electronic Litigation System (eLit), which is a case-centric e-document system to replace the EFS. eLit was launched in 2013 and continues to be used in the Singapore judiciary.

Justice Lee also took a special interest in developing procedures and practices for online trials, becoming the first judge in the High Court to conduct a fully online trial in July 2020 amidst the Covid-19 pandemic.

Building & Construction and Complex Litigation

Given his background, Justice Lee has a special interest in construction litigation as well as disputes involving complex engineering or scientific issues. He has presided over numerous trials in these areas ranging from litigation under the Building and Construction (Security of Payments) Act to damages claims for defective works and structural design failure. Many of these trials involved experts such as structural, geotechnical and mechanical engineers, quantity surveyors, delay consultants and scientists.

The following are the judgments that Justice Lee has issued in this area:

  • L & Engineering (S) Pte Ltd v Monocrafts Pte Ltd [1998] SGHC 224
  • New Civilbuild Pte Ltd v Guobena Sdn Bhd [1998] 2 SLR(R) 732
  • Dauphin Offshore Engineering & Trading Pte Ltd v The Private Office of HRH Sheikh Sultan bin Khalifa bin Zayed bin Zayed Al Nahyan [1999] SGHC 201
  • S A Shee & Co (Pte) Ltd v Kaki Bukit Industrial Park Pte Ltd [1999] SGHC 245
  • Nam Kee Asphalt Pte Ltd v Chew Eu Hock Construction Co Pte Ltd [2000] SGHC 45
  • Soil-Build (Pte) Ltd v Sin Yam Huat Investment Holding Pte Ltd [2000] SGHC 253
  • Marinteknik Shipbuilders (S) Pte Ltd v SNC Passion [2001] SGHC 140
  • Teo Hee Lai Building Construction Pte Ltd v Anwar Siraj [2002] SGHC 139
  • Ken Glass Design Associate Pte Ltd v Wind-Power Construction Pte Ltd [2003] 1 SLR(R) 34
  • Erect Scaffolding Pte Ltd v Hor Kew Pte Ltd [2007] SGHC 160
  • Sunny Metal & Engineering Pte Ltd v Ng Khim Ming Eric [2007] 3 SLR(R) 782
  • MEA Environment (Asia Pacific) Pte Ltd v 800 Super Waste Management Pte Ltd [2008] SGHC 157
  • Shanghai Electric Group Co Ltd v PT Merak Energi Indonesia [2010] 2 SLR 329
  • Sin Lian Heng Construction Pte Ltd v Singapore Telecommunications Ltd [2010] 4 SLR 821
  • Sungdo Engineering & Construction (S) Pte Ltd v Italcor Pte Ltd [2010] SCAdjR 889
  • W Y Steel Construction Pte Ltd v Osko Pte Ltd [2012] SGHC 194
  • PT Pukuafu Indah and others v Newmont Indonesia Ltd [2012] 4 SLR 1157
  • Aik Heng Contracts and Services Pte Ltd v Deshin Engineering & Construction Pte Ltd [2015] SGHC 293
  • LH Aluminium Industries Pte Ltd v Newcon Builders Pte Ltd [2015] 1 SLR 648
  • Progressive Builders Pte Ltd v Long Rise Pte Ltd [2015] 5 SLR 689
  • Tienrui Design & Construction Pte Ltd v G & Y Trading and Manufacturing Pte Ltd [2015] 5 SLR 852
  • Eng Seng Precast Pte Ltd v SLF Construction Pte Ltd [2015] 5 SLR 948
  • Bumi Geo Engineering Pte Ltd v Civil Tech Pte Ltd [2015] 5 SLR 1322
  • Thian Sung Construction Pte Ltd v International Elements Pte Ltd [2016] 1 SLR 1314
  • Fujitec Singapore Corp Ltd v GS Engineering & Construction Corp [2016] 1 SLR 1307
  • UTOC Engineering Pte Ltd v ASK Singapore Pte Ltd [2016] 5 SLR 83
  • Audi Construction Pte Ltd v Kian Hiap Construction Pte Ltd [2017] SGHC 165
  • JFC Builders Pte Ltd v Permasteelisa Pacific Holdings Ltd [2017] 3 SLR 344
  • Ang Cheng Guan Construction Pte Ltd v Corporate Residence Pte Ltd [2017] 3 SLR 988
  • 1L30G Pte Ltd v EQ Insurance Co Ltd [2017] 5 SLR 1106
  • BDC v BDD [2018] SGHC 32
  • AES Façade Pte Ltd v Wyse Pte Ltd [2018] SGHC 163
  • Yau Lee Construction (Singapore) Pte Ltd v Far East Square Pte Ltd [2018] SGHC 261
  • Lendlease Singapore Pte Ltd v M & S Management & Contracts Services Pte Ltd [2019] SGHC 139
  • Thio Keng Thay v Sandy Island [2019] SGHC 175
  • Winstech Engineering Pte Ltd v Shanghai Chong Kee Furniture & Construction Pte Ltd [2019] SGHC 213
  • CEQ v CER [2020] SGHC 70
  • CFA v CFB [2020] SGHC 101
  • Huationg Contractor Pte Ltd v Choon Lai Kuen [2020] SGHC 129
  • Range Construction Pte Ltd v Goldbell Engineering Pte Ltd [2020] SGHC 191
  • NSL Oilchem Waste Management v Prosper Marine [2020] SGHC 204
  • Chiu Teng Construction v AXA Insurance [2020] SGHC 234
  • CIK v CIL [2020] SGHC 274
  • Taishi-Tech v Hyundai Engrg & Constrn [2021] SGHC 208
  • Trinity Construction Development Pte Ltd v Sinohydro Corp Ltd [2021] 3 SLR 1039
  • CEX v CEY [2021] 3 SLR 571
  • LBE Engineering v Double S Construction [2022] SGHC 92
  • ICOP Construction v Tiong Seng Engrg [2022] SGHC 257
  • Lau Soon and another v UOL Development (Dakota) Pte Ltd [2022] 3 SLR 625

Information Technology

Justice Lee has presided over a number of ground-breaking cases in disputes involving information technology, an area that he has been intimately involved in throughout his legal career. He participated in the development of the case law in Singapore on electronic discovery and has delivered judgments in the new areas of crypto-currency and NFTs.

The following are the judgments of Justice Lee in the IT space:

  • National Skin Centre (Singapore) Pte Ltd v Eutech Cybernetics Pte Ltd [2001] 3 SLR(R) 801
  • Sanae Achar v Sci-Gen Ltd [2011] 3 SLR 967
  • Breezeway Overseas Ltd and another v UBS AG [2012] 4 SLR 1035
  • CLM v CLN [2022] 5 SLR 273
  • Janesh v Unknown person (“Chefpierre”) [2022] SGHC 264
  • Razer v Capgemini [2022] SGHC 310
  • Rio Christofle v Tan Chun Chuen Malcolm [2023] SGHC 66

Intellectual Property

Justice Lee has also presided over many trials involving intellectual property claims ranging from copyright to trademarks to patents. Again, with his engineering background, he has a special interest in technical patents.

The following are the IP judgments that he has written:

  • Hunter Manufacturing Pte Ltd and Another v Soundtex Switchgear & Engineering Pte Ltd [1999] SGHC 108
  • Rainforest Cafe, Inc v Rainforest Coffee Products Pte Ltd [1999] SGHC 249
  • Contour Optik Inc and Others v Pearl's Optical Co Pte Ltd [2002] SGHC 238
  • Mobil Petroleum Co, Inc v Hyundai Mobis [2008] 4 SLR(R) 427
  • MediaCorp News Pte Ltd v Astro All Asia Networks plc [2009] 4 SLR(R) 496
  • P. T. Swakarya Indah Busana v Haniffa Pte Ltd [2012] SGHC 69
  • Store+Deliver+Logistics Pte Ltd v Chin Siew Gim [2012] SGHC 89
  • Novartis AG and another v Ranbaxy (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd [2013] 2 SLR 117
  • Clearlab SG Pte Ltd v Ting Chong Chai [2015] 1 SLR 163
  • The Audience Motivation Company Asia Pte Ltd v AMC Live Group China (S) Pte Ltd [2015] 3 SLR 321
  • Ship’s Equipment Centre Bremen GmbH v Fuji Trading (Singapore) Pte Ltd [2015] 4 SLR 781
  • Polo/Lauren Co LP v United States Polo Association [2016] 2 SLR 667
  • Towa Corp v ASM Technology Singapore Pte Ltd [2017] 3 SLR 771
  • PCCW Media Ltd v M1 Ltd [2018] 5 SLR 375
  • Disney Enterprises, Inc and others v M1 Ltd [2018] 5 SLR 1318
  • Scotch Whisky Association v Isetan Mitsukoshi Ltd [2020] 3 SLR 725
  • Combe International Ltd v Dr August Wolff GmbH & Co KG Arzneimittel [2022] 5 SLR 575
  • Nippon Shinyaku Co, Ltd v Registrar of Patents [2023] 3 SLR 344

Legal Service Commission

Justice Lee was a member of the Legal Service Commission from April 2006 to January 2022. This was a period of rapid expansion of the Singapore Legal Service (SLS), from about 300 officers in 2006 to 800 by the time he stepped down in 2022. Justice Lee chaired various committees to improve the human resource policies of the SLS and was closely involved in the assessment and promotion of Legal Officers.


Justice Lee joined the ASEAN Law Association (ALA) in 2003 and has chaired the Singapore National Committee in various periods in the two decades following that. In 2015, he presented the paper “ALA at the Crossroads” which steered a new direction in the then 35-year old association. Justice Lee was involved in the conceptualisation and bringing into fruition of the ASEAN Chief Justice’s Meeting hosted by Singapore in 2013. This was renamed the Council of ASEAN Chief Justice (CACJ) in 2016 and inscribed as an entity associated ASEAN under Annex 2 of the ASEAN Charter in 2017. Justice Lee has been and remains intimately involved in ALA and CACJ proceedings and activities.


In 2017, Justice Lee was awarded the Meritorious Service Medal (Pingat Jasa Gemilang) by President Halimah Yacob for his role in the technological transformation of the courts and legal sector, and his services in the Legal Service Commission.

In 2022, the Singapore Computer Society conferred on him the Digital Achievers Award in recognition of his contributions to the development of IT in the legal sector.


  • Computerising the Law Office for the 1990s [1991] 2 MLJ lxxiii & lxxxix (with Robin Hu and Charles Lim)
  • Prosecutorial Discretion and Clemency in the Singapore Criminal Justice System: Singapore Academy of Law Conference 2006
  • Role of the Prosecutor: 1st Annual Event of the Attorney-General’s Chambers of Brunei, Malaysia & Singapore, Singapore 23-25 March 2006
  • Criminal Procedure Code 2010: A Watershed: Malaysia-Singapore Judicial Conference, Putrajaya, Malaysia, 19 March 2011
  • Editor-in-Chief: International Conference on Electronic Litigation (Proceedings of the SAL International Conference on Electronic Litigation, Singapore 11-12 Aug 2011) [Academy Publishing]
  • Editor-in-Chief: Global Technology Law Conference 2015: The Future of Money and Data [Academy Publishing]
  • Chapter 3: e-Discovery in "Modern Advocacy: More Perspectives from Singapore" [Academy Publishing 2019]

Membership in Authorities, Commissions, Boards and Associations

  • Member - Board of Directors - International Development & Consultancy Pte Ltd: (1996-1997)
  • Member - National Internet Advisory Committee: (1996 – 1997)
  • Member - Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore: (2003 – 2005)
  • Member - Competition Commission of Singapore: (2005 – 2006)
  • Member - Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore: (2005 – 2006)
  • Member - Monetary Authority of Singapore: 2006
  • Member - Legal Service Commission: (2006 – 2022)
  • Chairman - ASEAN Law Association (Singapore National Committee): (2007 – 2011); (2019 – 2024)
  • Chairman - Board of Directors, SAL Ventures Ltd: 2017 to date
  • Resident -  The Arbitration Chambers (2024 –)

Professional Memberships

  • Professional Engineer, Singapore, 1983
  • Advocate & Solicitor, Supreme Court of Singapore, 1991
  • Fellow, Singapore Academy of Law, 1997
  • Senior Counsel, Singapore, 2003
  • Fellow, Singapore Institute of Arbitrators, 2006

Educational Background

  • St Paul's Institution, Seremban, Malaysia (1960-1970)
  • National Junior College, Singapore (1971-1972)
  • University of Adelaide, Australia (1973-1976)
  • National University of Singapore (1981-1982; part-time)
  • INSEAD, Fontainebleau, France (1982-1983)
  • National University of Singapore (1984-1986)
  • University of Cambridge (Jesus College), England (1986-1987)

Academic Qualifications

  • B.Eng.(Civil)(Hons), Adelaide 1977)
  • M.Sc.(Construction Engineering), NUS 1982
  • MBA(Distinction), INSEAD 1983
  • LL.B.(Hons), NUS 1986
  • LL.M.(Hons), Cantab. 1987

English and French

For more information on contact details and recent appointments, download CV